Glossary of Forestry terminology
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Glossary of forestry terminology
the basis is derived from:
Hancock Timber Resource Group - HTRG
several items added by HHvdM
An age range in which forested stands are often classified for management purposes, since age can be a good indicator of size and merchantability.
The cross sectional area of a tree, in square feet, measured at breast height. This is one method of measuring density in a given timber stand.
Commercially important hardwood tree species found in the Northeast; primarily used in the manufacture of fine furniture.
Unit of measurement for lumber; 1 board foot equals a 1" thick board, 1' in width and 1' in length.
An area of land left uncut next to a stream or road to minimize erosion, water pollution and/or enhance scenic considerations.
A system of logging using wire rope in which winches are in fixed positions and logs are transported partially or entirely off the ground. It is commonly used in the western U.S. on environmentally sensitive areas or areas inaccessible to conventional logging equipment.
A cell layer in the outer part of the tree that produces new wood for the growth of a tree.
An overstory or roof formed by intertwining tree branches.
Process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and storing it in living systems like forests, or in deep oceans or underground. In the case of forests, sequestration occurs where there is a net growth of forests, or accumulation of carbon in forest soils.
Chip 'n' saw
Small sawtimber sufficient to produce some small dimension lumber, with the remainder chipped for pulp.
A logging technique in which all of the trees in a given area are harvested, regardless of size. It is used principally in even-aged stands of trees and is considered essential to the regeneration of tree species that are intolerant to shade.
Any order of mostly evergreen trees and shrubs, including those with true cones such as pine, spruce and fir.
A unit of measurement equal to a stack of wood 4 x 4 x 8 feet or 128 cubic feet. Pulpwood is often measured in cords.
The upper part of the tree.
A grouping of trees according to their position in the forest canopy. Four classes are used: dominant, codominant, intermediate and suppressed.
Term used to estimate the volume and quality of timber in a specific area.
Trees that lose their leaves, generally broad-leaved and usually hardwoods.
Diameter at breast height (DBH)
A commonly used point (4.5 feet above level ground) of diameter measurement used to estimate wood volume in a standing tree.
Commercially important softwood tree species grown primarily in the Pacific Northwest.
A widely used log scale that estimates log volume. It is often used in the South.
Eastern white pine
Commercially important softwood tree species grown primarily in the Northeast.
A system of forest management designed to maintain or improve the overall quality of stands of trees that are the same age or in the same age class.
A machine used to fell trees by cutting them off at the ground using a sawhead or hydraulic shears. The cut trees are then assembled together to form a load for subsequent haulage by other equipment. These machines are used on level ground and are most common in the South.
A general term that refers to various wood panel products such as particleboard, hardboard or chipboard, or other types of board formed by bonding wood with heat and pressure.
A branch of forestry that is concerned with the overall administrative, scientific, technical, economic and social aspects of a designated forested area.
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC®)
An international nonprofit organization founded to support environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world's forests through independent forest management certification and marketplace labeling of certified forest products.
General term referring to any type or variety of broadleaf trees. The term does not refer to the actual hardness of the wood.
A general term describing the removal of biologically or financially mature trees.
The most important commercial species of southern yellow pine; grown largely in the U.S. South.
The standard abbreviation for 1,000 board feet of standing timber, logs or lumber.
Timber of a specific species, size, quality and condition which can be sold commercially.
Tree reproduction obtained from seedlings originating by natural seeding or from sprouts.
Oriented strand board (OSB)
Wood panels made of wood chips oriented lengthwise and crosswise in layers with a resin binder.
A stiff cardboard composed of layers of paper, or paper pulp, compressed into a sheet.
A generic term used to describe panel wood products made from discrete particles (sawdust, chips) of wood rather than fibers.
Phase I environmental audit
An on-site evaluation that seeks to identify any sources of environmental liability associated with the property.
A forested stand, usually even-aged, that is produced by direct seeding or planting.
A flat wood panel comprised of a number of thin sheets or veneers in which the grain direction of each sheet is at a right angle to the one adjacent to it. The sheets are bonded by resin and pressure.
The removal of selected trees in a young stand so that remaining trees will have more room to grow to marketable size. A thinning made purely as an investment in the future growth of the stand.
Timber of specific species, quality and condition which is currently too small in diameter to be considered merchantable.
A silvicultural technique that uses regulated fires to reduce or eliminate undesirable vegetation.
Wood that is reduced to a slurry of wood fibers by mechanical or chemical processes. Pulp is most commonly used for paper and paper products production.
Commercially important tree species grown primarily in Australia, New Zealand and Chile.
Planting or seeding activity conducted after an area has been harvested.
Period of time required to establish and grow a timber stand to economic or biological maturity.
Outer layer of a tree, often whiter in colour than the middle, softer and more vunerable to rot and diseases.
Young plantation Teak has relatively much sapwood as compared to naturally grown forest teak and cathes therefore lower prices per volume (HHvdM)
Intermediate product between sawtimber and lumber. A sawtimber-quality tree is felled, de-limbed and cut to length to become a sawlog. When delivered and milled, lumber is produced from the sawlog.
Timber of sufficient size and quality to be converted to lumber or other solid wood products.
A widely used log scale designed to measure the actual net yield of a log in board feet.
A young tree grown from seed from the time of germination to the sapling stage. These trees are less than 1 foot in height.
The science and art of influencing the establishment, composition and development of tree stands to achieve forest management objectives.
A standing dead tree, or portion of a tree from which most of the foliage and limbs have died. These trees are often left standing after a logging operation to provide habitat for certain species of wildlife.
General term referring to any variety of coniferous trees having narrow, needle-like or scale-like leaves. The term does not refer to the actual softness of the wood.
A group of generally related tree species for which similar management practices have been developed.
An identifiable group of trees occurring in a particular area that form a forest management unit.
The process of managing life and property with proper regard for the rights of others.
Standing merchantable trees on the stump before they are felled. This term can also refer to the monetary value of standing timber calculated before trees are cut.
Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI®)
A comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures developed by foresters, conservationists and scientists that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the protection of wildlife, plants, soil and water quality. For more information, please go to
The periodic yield of timber that a given forest area can produce indefinitely at a given intensity of management.
Intermediate cutting made in immature stands to stimulate the growth of the trees that remain.
A non-profit organization, housed at the University of Georgia's School of Forest Resources, that publishes southern timber price information.
A tract of land on which trees are regenerated, cultured, managed and harvested as a crop primarily for commercial purposes.
Wood peeled, sawn, or sliced into thin sheets of a given thickness. Heavily used in the furniture industry as well as the plywood industry.
A wood panel made of discrete wafers of wood bound together by resin, heat and pressure. Lower quality hardwoods are often used in the production of waferboard.
Commercially important softwood tree species grown primarily in the Northwest.
Wood supply agreement
An agreement to supply wood fiber for a predetermined time at a predetermined price.
A term used to describe forested areas consisting of both hardwood and softwood species.
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